2 edition of Indirect employment and income distribution effects of agricultural development strategies found in the catalog.
Indirect employment and income distribution effects of agricultural development strategies
1973 by Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University in East Lansing (Mich.) .
Written in English
|Series||African Rural Employment Network. African rural employment paper, no. 9|
Transport by itself is not a sufficient condition for development. With the exception of farm size, the results reveal that these variables tend to have a positive and statistically significant impact on TE. Taxes differ from other sources of revenue in that they are compulsory levies and are unrequited—i. The role of agriculture in development remains much debated. This opened substantial economic and social opportunities through the extraction of resources, the settlement of regions and the growing mobility of freight and passengers. In spite of this, they have to rely heavily on extracting the surplus from agriculture to finance industrialisation.
Modern economists have challenged this orthodox view on the grounds that modern, chemical-biological agriculture requires heavy investments on irrigation, and water control. Transportation provides market accessibility by linking producers and consumers so that transactions can take place. Finally, since linkage potential does not account for possible supply constraints and, since supply shortages may be more chronic than deficiencies of demand in LDCs, high-income-generation potential may lead to excess demand and inflation—an increases in prices instead of increases in real output. Investment in transport infrastructures is thus seen as a tool of regional development, particularly in developing countries.
Using a very crude method, we can also convert the benefit-cost ratios into approximate QALY terms. If employment creation is important, agriculture should command special interest in development planning. Agriculture[ edit ] In many developing countries, agriculture employs a large proportion of the labor forcewhile food consumption accounts for a large share of household income. The overall demand of an economy is increasing.
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Access to and use of irrigation, fertilizer and agricultural machinery remains limited in some developing countries. While an economy depending on manufacturing will rely on road, rail and port infrastructures, a service economy is more oriented towards the efficiency of logistics and urban transportation.
This type of subsidy is predominantly found in developed markets. An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of existing data sets is thus also provided, with particular attention to panel data sets that might be useful for assessing the extent of geographic mobility. In the Marxist-Leninist approach, output can be extracted directly through compulsory delivery at low prices to the non-agricultural sector.
In poor regions and rural areas within middle-income developing countries, the concentration of poverty in rural areas of otherwise better-off developing countries makes the development of agriculture vital there. Third, certain forms of intervention and fourth, not intervening.
Pinheiro - Journal of Economic Development " It entails a sustainable rise in national output which is a manifestation of economic growth. Support for agricultural production[ edit ] Support for agricultural modernization and development — investment in productive capacity in agriculture and food processing.
This perspective underlines that after a phase of introduction and growth, a transport system will eventually reach a phase of maturity through geographical and market saturation.
The deduction of mortgage interest from the federal income tax accounts for the largest interest rate subsidy. Another example of a tax that is linked to benefits received, if only loosely, is the use of taxes on motor fuels to finance the construction and maintenance of roads and highways, whose services can be enjoyed only by consuming taxed motor fuels.
Helpful to Reduce Inequality: In a country which is predominantly agricultural and overpopulated, there is greater inequality of income between the rural and urban areas of the country.
The outcome is commonly a more efficient division of production by the exploitation of geographical comparative advantages, as well as the means to develop economies of scale and scope. This means that the economic impacts of transport investments tend to be significant when infrastructures were previously lacking and tend to be marginal when an extensive network is already present.
Investment in transport infrastructures is thus seen as a tool of regional development, particularly in developing countries.
They measure only the first round of effects of the interrelationships. This is considered protectionism: a government policy to erect trade barriers in order to protect domestic industries. In this regard, one should consider the demands of agricultural sector for intermediate capital goods, for manufactured inputs and for raw materials.
However, that can result in a redistribution of income. The industrial sector adds to demand for agricultural goods, and absorbs surplus labour which may raise yield per hectare. So there is a surplus of C1Q1, for use outside agriculture.Journal of Development Economics 28 () North-Holland THE EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES ON INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE Richard E.
JUST University of Maryland, College Park, MAUSA David ZILBERMAN University of California, Berkeley, CAUSA Received Julyfinal Cited by: Self and Grabowski () studied the effects of different direct and indirect measures of agricultural productivity on the rate of economic growth and found a strong correlation between the.
lation growth. Since all economic policies have direct and indirect effects on the level and growth of either urban or rural incomes or of both, they all will have a tendency to influence the nature and magnitude of the migration stream.
Although some policies may have a more direct and immediate effect (e.g., wages and income policies, employment. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) notes that this means that “even small changes in agricultural employment opportunities, or prices, can have major socio-economic effects in developing countries”.
Thus whatever the development strategy a particular country adopts, the role of agriculture will often be crucial. measures of agricultural productivity, the effects of agricultural research and development (R&D) on agricultural innovation and productivity patterns, and the resulting social payoffs to investments in agricultural R&D.
This review summarizes and interprets the main findings from that body of work. it also has an indirect effect on human development. The impact of economic growth on a nation’s human development level, of course, also depends on other conditions of the society. One important component here is the role of the distribution of income, both at a micro level within a household as well as The effects of economic growth on.